Solidity - Blockchain & SmartContract Development - CoinNav

Decentralized Applications, or Dapps, are applications built on the open-source, peer-to-peer network of the Ethereum Blockchain. They utilize smart contracts and front-end user interfaces to create decentralized platforms.

Developing a Dapp involves programming and executing code on the system. Solidity is the preferred programming language for Ethereum, setting it apart from other languages.

Solidity is a cutting-edge programming language developed by Ethereum, the second-largest cryptocurrency market by capitalization. It enables developers to create innovative and decentralized applications on the Ethereum Blockchain.

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What is Solidity Programming?

Solidity is a purpose-built, object-oriented programming language developed by the Ethereum Network team for crafting and designing smart contracts on Blockchain platforms.

It serves as a tool for creating machine-level code and compiling it on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), enabling the implementation of business logic and generating a chain of transaction records in the blockchain system.

With similarities to C and C++, Solidity is relatively straightforward to learn and comprehend. For instance, a "main" function in C is equivalent to a "contract" in Solidity.

Similar to other programming languages, Solidity programming encompasses variables, functions, classes, arithmetic operations, string manipulation, and various other fundamental concepts.



Evolution of Solidity Programming

The evolution of Solidity programming has been remarkable, as it has quickly gained prominence as a relatively new language.

  • Currently, Solidity serves as the core language not only on Ethereum but also on other private blockchains like Monax and its Hyperledger Burrow blockchain, which utilizes Tendermint for consensus.
  • Notably, SWIFT has developed a proof of concept running on Burrow, further showcasing the versatility and adoption of Solidity in various blockchain ecosystems.

What are EVM and Smart Contracts?

EVM or Ethereum Virtual Machine

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) serves as a runtime environment for executing Ethereum smart contracts. Its primary focus is on ensuring secure execution of untrusted programs across a global network of public nodes. EVM's key features include preventing Denial-of-Service attacks, enforcing isolation of programs' states, and enabling seamless communication with no potential interference.


Smart Contracts

Smart contracts, on the other hand, are high-level program codes compiled into the EVM for execution on the Ethereum blockchain. By leveraging smart contracts, trustworthy transactions can occur without the need for intermediaries, making transactions traceable and irreversible. Commonly used programming languages for creating smart contracts include Serpent, Solidity, Mutan, and LLL. Embracing EVM and smart contracts has revolutionized the landscape of decentralized applications, enabling greater efficiency and security in various industries.



Data Types in Solidity Programming

Solidity programming supports various common data types found in other object-oriented programming (OOP) languages, including:

  • Boolean: Returns '1' for true and '0' for false, based on the condition's status.
  • Integer: Supports signed and unsigned integer values, with runtime exceptions and keywords like 'uint8' and 'uint256'.
  • String: Can be denoted with single or double quotes.
  • Modifier: Verifies conditions before executing smart contract code.
  • Array: Supports both single and multidimensional arrays, similar to other OOP languages.

Furthermore, Solidity allows the use of "Map" data structures with enums, operators, and hash values to retrieve stored values from specific storage locations.


How to Get Started With Solidity Programming?


Version Pragma

  • Pragmas are directives to the compiler about how to handle the code. Every line of solidity source code should begin with a "version pragma," which specifies which version of the solidity compiler to use.
  • This prevents the code from being incompatible with future compiler versions that may introduce changes.


The Contract Keyword


  • The contract keyword declares a contract that encapsulates the code.


State/Declare Variables

  • State variables are written on the Ethereum Blockchain and are permanently maintained in contract storage.
  • The line uint public var1 declares a state variable of type uint named var1 (unsigned integer of 256 bits), it is very similar to adding a slot in a database.


A Function Declaration


  • This is a function named “set” of access modifier type public which takes a variable a and variable b of data type uint as a parameter.
  • This was an example of a simple smart contract that updates the value of var1 and var2. Anyone with access to the Ethereum blockchain can use the set function to change the value of var1 and var2.
  • By adding the values of the variables var1 and var2, it can calculate the variable sum.
  • It will retrieve and print the value of the state variable sum using the “get” function.


Advantages of Solidity Programming

Solidity Programming offers several advantages beyond its primary functionality, giving it an edge over other Ethereum-based languages.

  1. Support for Complex Data Types: Solidity allows the use of complex data types and member variables, enhancing the versatility of smart contract development.
  2. Application Binary Interface (ABI): Solidity provides an ABI for type safety, detecting data type mismatches and generating errors during compilation.
  3. Natural Language Specification: Solidity incorporates a Natural Language Specification to translate user-centric specifications into machine-readable language, streamlining the coding process.

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